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This comprehensive reference work presents Beider's catalog and analysis of Jewish names occurring in the Pale of Settlement in the Russian Empire. Some extracts follow.
Beider distinguishes nine types:
In the Vilna guberniya the most common sources of names were toponyms and rabbinical surnames (just over half). Names derived from feminine given names were uncommon (3.5%). In the Mogilev guberniya, however, the latter category accounted for 38.6% of the surnames, and in the Vitebsk guberniya, for 11.7%
Surnames became obligatory at the beginning of the 19th century.
Generally speaking, the Jewish attitude toward their new surnames was very negative. While Jews have traditionally paid particular attention to their names, the forced adoption of surnames was not generated by the internal life of the Jewish community. Rather, it was ordered by the Christian governmental authorities ... [A]lmost all Russian Jews received surnames at the beginning of the 19th centruy, but the most common reaction was for the Jews to ignore them ...
[David Gold, JLR 1985, 5:375]:
The first group of surnames was connected with the ukase of August 26, 1827 relating to military service. Names like Khaper, Khapman, Khapun, Khapchik, Nekrutman relate to "captors" seeking draftable "recruits".
Here is the entire entry from Beider's dictionary:
Cherlin FS: see Sorin.
This means that the name is a matronymic. That is, F: female given name; S: son of.
Similarly, for Tsirlin:
Tsirlin (Mstislavl') FS: see Sorin.
This includes the geographical indication, Mstislavl'. Incidentally, he gives the name Tsirklin, a variant, as associated with Disna (which we know from the Plisa line).
The Sorin entry contains about 150 variants, and is too tedious to insert here.